Beginner's Guide for Keras2DML users


Keras2DML is an experimental API that converts a Keras specification to DML through the intermediate Caffe2DML module. It is designed to fit well into the mllearn framework and hence supports NumPy, Pandas as well as PySpark DataFrame.

Getting Started

To create a Keras2DML object, one needs to create a Keras model through the Funcitonal API. please see the Functional API. This module utilizes the existing Caffe2DML backend to convert Keras models into DML. Keras models are parsed and translated into Caffe prototext and caffemodel files which are then piped into Caffe2DML. Thus one can follow the Caffe2DML documentation for further information.

Model Conversion

Keras models are parsed based on their layer structure and corresponding weights and translated into the relative Caffe layer and weight configuration. Be aware that currently this is a translation into Caffe and there will be loss of information from keras models such as intializer information, and other layers which do not exist in Caffe.

To create a Keras2DML object, simply pass the keras object to the Keras2DML constructor. It’s also important to note that your models should be compiled so that the loss can be accessed for Caffe2DML

```python from systemml.mllearn import Keras2DML import keras from keras.applications.resnet50 import preprocess_input, decode_predictions, ResNet50

keras_model = ResNet50(weights=’imagenet’,include_top=True,pooling=’None’,input_shape=(224,224,3)) keras_model.compile(optimizer=’sgd’, loss= ‘categorical_crossentropy’)

sysml_model = Keras2DML(spark, keras_model,input_shape=(3,224,224)) sysml_model.summary() ```

Frequently asked questions

What is the mapping between Keras’ parameters and Caffe’s solver specification ?

  Specified via the given parameter in the Keras2DML constructor From input Keras’ model Corresponding parameter in the Caffe solver file
Solver type   type(keras_model.optimizer). Supported types: keras.optimizers.{SGD, Adagrad, Adam} type
Maximum number of iterations max_iter The epoch parameter in the fit method is not supported. max_iter
Validation dataset test_iter (explained in the below section) The validation_data parameter in the fit method is not supported. test_iter
Monitoring the loss display, test_interval (explained in the below section) The LossHistory callback in the fit method is not supported. display, test_interval
Learning rate schedule lr_policy The LearningRateScheduler callback in the fit method is not supported. lr_policy (default: step)
Base learning rate base_lr
Learning rate decay over each update   keras_model.optimizer.decay gamma
Global regularizer to use for all layers regularization_type,weight_decay The current version of Keras2DML doesnot support custom regularizers per layer. regularization_type,weight_decay
If type of the optimizer is keras.optimizers.SGD   momentum, nesterov momentum, type
If type of the optimizer is keras.optimizers.Adam   beta_1, beta_2, epsilon. The parameter amsgrad is not supported. momentum, momentum2, delta
If type of the optimizer is keras.optimizers.Adagrad   epsilon delta

How do I specify the batch size and the number of epochs ?

Since Keras2DML is a mllearn API, it doesnot accept the batch size and number of epochs as the parameter in the fit method. Instead, these parameters are passed via batch_size and max_iter parameters in the Keras2DML constructor. For example, the equivalent Python code for, labels, epochs=10, batch_size=64) is as follows:

python from systemml.mllearn import Keras2DML epochs = 10 batch_size = 64 num_samples = features.shape[0] max_iter = int(epochs*math.ceil(num_samples/batch_size)) sysml_model = Keras2DML(spark, keras_model, batch_size=batch_size, max_iter=max_iter, ...), labels)

What optimizer and loss does Keras2DML use by default if keras_model is not compiled ?

If the user does not compile the keras model, then we use cross entropy loss and SGD optimizer with nesterov momentum:

python keras_model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer=keras.optimizers.SGD(lr=0.01, momentum=0.95, decay=5e-4, nesterov=True))

What is the learning rate schedule used ?

Keras2DML does not support the LearningRateScheduler callback. Instead one can set the custom learning rate schedule to one of the following schedules by using the lr_policy parameter of the constructor: - step: return base_lr * gamma ^ (floor(iter / step)) (default schedule) - fixed: always return base_lr. - exp: return base_lr * gamma ^ iter - inv: return base_lr * (1 + gamma * iter) ^ (- power) - poly: the effective learning rate follows a polynomial decay, to be zero by the max_iter. return base_lr (1 - iter/max_iter) ^ (power) - sigmoid: the effective learning rate follows a sigmod decay return base_lr ( 1/(1 + exp(-gamma * (iter - stepsize))))

How to set the size of the validation dataset ?

The size of the validation dataset is determined by the parameters test_iter and the batch size. For example: If the batch size is 64 and test_iter is set to 10 in the Keras2DML’s constructor, then the validation size is 640. This setting generates following DML code internally:

python num_images = nrow(y_full) BATCH_SIZE = 64 num_validation = 10 * BATCH_SIZE X = X_full[(num_validation+1):num_images,]; y = y_full[(num_validation+1):num_images,] X_val = X_full[1:num_validation,]; y_val = y_full[1:num_validation,] num_images = nrow(y)

How to monitor loss via command-line ?

To monitor loss, please set the parameters display, test_iter and test_interval in the Keras2DML’s constructor.
For example: for the expression Keras2DML(..., display=100, test_iter=10, test_interval=500), we - display the training loss and accuracy every 100 iterations and - carry out validation every 500 training iterations and display validation loss and accuracy.